English physician and advocate for people with intellectual disabilities, John
Langdon Down, links a population with distinct physical characteristics to
decreased intellectual ability and calls them “mongoloid” (explaining their facial
features were similar to those of the Mongolian people).

Down, J. L. H. Observations on an ethnic classification of idiots. Lond. Hosp.
Rep. 3, 259–262 (1866); reprinted in Ment. Retard. 33, 54–56 (1995).

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